Unit 1 Essays (Chapters 1, 2 and 3)
Answer each of the following questions in your own words. Your answer should be brief, no more than one to two pages per question. If you “cut and paste” from the text or another source, you will not receive any credit.
1. From 1980 to 1990 crime rose at an alarming rate. From 1990 through 2005, the rate fell significantly. However, the number of individuals incarcerated consistently rose throughout the entire period from 1973 through 2008. In 1973, 96 people per 100,000 were incarcerated while by 2008 that number had climbed to 500 per 100,000. How do you explain why the number of individuals under correctional control does not reflect the rate of crime?
2. Trace the history of the English poor houses (Bridewells) and the transportation (banishment) practices to the modern day penitentiary system.
3. Explain why Beccaria’s “On Crime and Punishment” and Bentham’s “Hedonistic Calculus” influenced the “Penitentiary Movement”.
4. Why was the “Medical Model” rejected during the 1970s? What specific individuals and events influenced this change?