The past, present and future of nurse education in Poland

1. READ the following:

• Chapter 10: Child Health

• Chapter 11: Communicable Diseases

2. READ the following four (4) articles related to nursing education systems around the globe (Ireland, Kenya, Poland, China). CLICK on the PDF files.

• O’Dwyer, P. (2007). The educational preparation of nurses in Ireland. Nursing Education Perspectives, 28(3), 136-139. [PDF file]

• Mule, G.K. (1986). Nursing education in Kenya: Trends and innovations. International Nursing Review, 33(3), 83-86. [PDF file]

• Sztembis, B. (2006). The past, present and future of nurse education in Poland: stages, conditions and activities. International Nursing Review, 53(2), 102-109. [PDF file]

• Xu, Y., Xu, Z., & Zhang, J. (2000). The nursing education system in the People’s Republic of China: Evolution, structure and reform. International Nursing Review, 47(4), 207-217. [PDF file]

3. WRITE a 750 word paper CCOMPARE the nursing education systems of the two (2) of the countries in the above journal articles. See the Nursing Student Writing Guidelines Checklist for paper requirements and answering the following:

• HEADING: Political History and Development of Nursing Education: Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]

o Describe how the political history of the country influenced nursing education in your selected (2) countries. How did nursing education develop?

• HEADING: Government and Nursing Organizations Influencing Nursing Education: Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]

o Which government agency(ies) or organizations influenced the training of nurses and how did the agency(ies) do that? Did nursing organizations play a role?

• HEADING: Current System of Nursing Education: Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]

o According to the article, what is the current system for educating nurses in the selected counties? Are there diploma (hospital-based) schools? Has nursing education moved into university settings? Is there a combination of nursing education programs (similar to U.S. system) to train nurses?

• HEADING: Post-Graduate (Masters) Education: Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]

o Is post-graduate (masters) education for nurses available?

• HEADING: Reflections on Nursing Education in [Selected Countries]

o In conclusion, what surprised you about nursing education in the countries that you selected?

• Use the above headings in your paper. In-text citations and a reference list MUST be found in your paper.

• See the Nursing Student Writing Guidelines Checklist for APA formatting.

• See end of Module for common paper errors.

REMINDERS:

• Comparison of: Political History and Development of Nursing Education;

• Government and Nursing Organizations Influencing Nursing Education;

• Current System of Nursing Education;

• Post-Graduate (Masters) Education

8.8 million children under the age of 5 die each year

Many of these deaths are preventable

Children are a particularly vulnerable population

Closely linked with poverty

Insufficient progress has been made in certain parts of the world in reducing childhood morbidity and mortality

Perinatal : first week of life

Neonatal : referring to the first month of life

Infant : referring to the first year of life

Under-5 : referring to children 0-4 years old

40% of the burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries

Disproportionately affect the poor

Enormous economic consequences

Relevance to MDGs

Burden of communicable disease is unnecessary, many can be prevented or treated

Communicable disease- transmitted from animal to animal, animal to human, or human to human

Spread and contracted through food, water, bodily fluids, vector, inhalation, nontraumatic contact, and traumatic contact

Controlled with vaccination, mass chemotherapy, vector control, improved water and sanitation, improved care seeking and disease recognition, case management, and behavioral change

36% of total deaths, 40% of total DALYs lost annually in low- and middle-income countries

Relative importance compared to noncommunicable diseases and injuries varies by region

South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa have highest relative burden of deaths from communicable diseases

Relative importance of specific communicable diseases varies by region, age group

Constrain health and development of children, having an effect on education and productivity

Strong stigma and discrimination associated with HIV, TB, and others

Limit productivity of adult workers

Costs of treatment burden families

High rates reduce investment in a country’s development

The Burden of Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

Resistant forms of disease emerge or re-emerge when bacteria, parasites, and viruses are genetically altered

Critical global health problems because they can arise anywhere, at anytime, and spread rapidly

Drug resistance limits ability to treat infection

Addressing the Burden of HIV/AIDS

Focus on prevention of new infections

Successful efforts have included strong political leadership and open communication

Approach to prevention must vary with nature of epidemic

Efforts need to combine education and behavioral change, bio-medical approaches, and structural approaches

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