Cognition and Learning – Best Sample Essay(2022)

This article discusses in detail Cognition and Learning.


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From the material covered in this course, make at least six recommendations for how students should study (or how teachers should teach) so that they will understand, remember and be able to apply what they learn better.  For each of the recommendations include the following four things:

            1.  A statement of the recommendation in everyday language so that anybody can understand it

            2.  A statement of the recommendation in the technical language of cognitive psychology covered in this course

            3.  Justification of the recommendation citing cognitive theories and studies covered in this course



Cognition and learning


Various processes, including thinking, understanding, and remembering, judging, and solving problems, are involved in knowledge acquisition. People also learn and remember through imagination, perception, and planning. The human brain functions differently for every person. Students need to develop cognitive skills that enable them to acquire and use past knowledge and ideas. Students have different approaches to learning new concepts (Anderson, 2005).

More vital cognitive and learning skills build more enthusiasm and confidence as students approach schoolwork. There are various learning and teaching methods that can help students understand, master, remember, and apply what they have been taught. Learning and teaching techniques should be student-centered, allowing them to be more engaged in the learning process. Best techniques also consider differentiated ability to learn and try as much as possible to cover different students’ various learning abilities.

Students have a different level of understanding. Also, different minds master particular concepts more than others; some students are good with numbers, and others find it easy in linguistics. There are various types of students, including geological, mathematical, musical, biological, linguistic, and teaching, or learning techniques suitable for specific students than others. Therefore, a teacher needs to keep in mind the various needs of the students.  


Differentiated instruction

Instructors should adopt differentiated instruction techniques to meet the individual needs of every student. Teachers should assess students’ cognitive strengths and weaknesses and develop strategies that suit individual learning abilities. The technique is gaining popularity today to address all types of learners’ needs. Coursework can be differentiated in multiple ways, including access to learning materials and activities that help different learners understand a concept, the classroom setup, and learner expectations.

Differentiated learning instances include allowing learners to read books in the ways they understand best, grouping learners with similar traits to learn and move together, and giving different learning materials for different students. Some learning materials would have easy-to-understand language for specific students.

There is a unanimous agreement among educational psychologists, curriculum designers, and teachers that students learn differently. This agreement creates the theory of differentiated instruction, which dictates that to attain a beneficial learning process, teachers need to consider individual differences and modify the way and type of content are delivered, how to conduct assessments and delivery sequences (Rasheed & Wahid, 2018).

Differentiation is teachers responding to students’ various needs through differentiation mindset and principles that include quality curriculum, flexible grouping, community building, respectful tasks, continual assessment, and teaching. Teachers can differentiate in terms of content, process, product, learning environment, and effect according to the learners learning profile, readiness, and interest. According to the theory, differentiation strategies include scaffolded reading, learning contracts, independent studies, and complicated instructions, graphic organizing, intelligence preferences, interest centers, cubing, orbitals, and web quests or inquiries. 

According to Dr. Carol Ann Tomlinson, differentiation is necessary for the current educational system with an academic and culturally diverse population. Through this technique, teachers can effectively respond to students’ culture, race, readiness, interest, preferences, experience, motivation, and learning objectives. The current society is complex, and through differentiated instructions, students can become critical and flexible thinkers to produce knowledge and solve problems that impact their specific communities.

The learning style, vibrant environment, and current knowledge affect students learning ability (Rasheed & Wahid, 2018). Depending on diverse backgrounds, teachers need to develop motivational factors for various students. Tomlinson provides that students can be differentiated according to learning profile, interest, and readiness. Different students have varying levels of readiness to learn a new concept. Students might not be ready to digest something depending on the concept and other factors.

Therefore, teachers need to elaborate on the need for the topic and its applicability. For such students, teachers can apply the principles of exercise, affect, and cognition. The exercise involves learners working progressively and repetitively on tasks through practice for an extended period.

The effect is based on the learners’ emotional reaction, which is fostered through the satisfaction feeling. Demotivation and displeasure impact learners’ readiness to learn.  Cognition style is the students’ ability to acquire and understand a concept. Some various models and theories support the differentiated instruction technique. The Gardner theory based on cognitive structure implies visual-spatial, musical, verbal-linguistic, naturalistic, interpersonal, and kinesthetic approaches to learning.

Myers-Brings model based on stable personality provides for differentiation and students’ attitudes, functions, and lifestyle. Kolb’s model based on flexible personality facilitates learning through feeling, thinking, acting, and visualizing (Rasheed & Wahid, 2018).

Differentiated instruction is suitable in mathematical classes where some students have a higher mastery than others. For instance, many students struggle with understanding algebra and have developed a fear of these expressions. They need special attention from teachers. The teacher can make device differentiated mechanisms such as providing additional materials with easy to understand language and stepwise explanation of how to solve algebraic expressions. The students can learn and develop problem-solving skills at their own pace and without peer pressure.  

Inquiry-based learning

Instructors should embrace teaching by allowing students to ask questions. Instructors should evaluate student’s cognition, cognitive abilities, and previous knowledge and ideas to influence self-generation. This technique applies investigation and hands-on projects that require high-level student engagement, and the teacher is required as the guide or a supportive figure. In this type of learning, the teacher can be a facilitator, a personal model, or a delegator.

As facilitators, teachers must develop strong relationships with students, as the teacher and the learner learn together. The technique is best for bolstering self-reliance, hands-on learning, and investigation. Personal model teachers operate as leading examples of how students should approach the coursework. Students will learn through observation and copying the instructor. A delegator serves as a resource provider who answers questions when needed. It is much of a passive role that seeks to foster student’s autonomy.

This technique allows students to decide what they want to know and ask questions to get the information needed to elaborate on vital concepts and solve the issues they face in the learning process (Madhuri, Kantamreddi & Prakash Goteti, 2012). It is encouraged that during the process, different students should work on different topics of interest. Teachers should give complex problems that require students to research a topic that would boost their knowledge thoroughly. Students can reflect on what they have learned and experience gained.

Piaget, Dewey, Freire, and Vygotsky’s constructive learning theories form the basis of inquiry-based learning that encourages students to research issues and ask questions to add to their knowledge or solve problems. The technique is a constructivist philosophy that generates information and knowledge through personal and community experience (Dostál, 2015). According to Dewey’s experiential learning theory, learners should participate actively in personal and societal experiences to make meaning and learn from them.

Experimental learning can facilitate inquiry since they share similar concepts as students engage in learning through collaboration, investigation, and questioning (Linell, 2017). Vygotsky’s pedagogy emphasizes learning through experience around society and the facilitator. Experience can be an individual or group. The inquiry-based learning process involves creating questions, investigating evidence to address the questions, discussing the evidence, relating the discussion and the investigative knowledge, and creating a justification of the discussion.

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Cognition and Learning
Cognition and Learning

Doing research, collecting data through observations, analyzing, and interpreting the data helps learners have an in-depth understanding of the topic. Students also design possible explanations of the evidence and develop future predictions based on the study (National Institute for Health, 2005). Inquiry-based learning allows learners to acquire and apply critical thinking skills and reflect on the real world and course concepts (Dostál, 2015).

Open learning is a vital aspect of inquiry-based learning, where students have no pre-meditated targets and can manipulate information and create meaning based on coursework and circumstances. Open learning has no wrong results, and students need to justify their findings and assess the evidence’s strengths and weaknesses to decide their value. As such, students focus less on grades and more on concept application and effect. High-level student engagement in the learning process boosts understanding, recall, and application of topics.

Students can think about the evidence collected and what it means. The technique allows students to memorize and learn concepts through facts, strengthening their prior knowledge and ideas (Bächtold, 2013). Inquiry-based learning is suitable for research-centric concepts and topics. For instance, geological studies of the impact of pollution on the environment work best with an inquiry. Studying pollution involves giving students topics or research areas that affect their community. Learners develop questions related to pollution.

For example, what is the extent of air pollution in Alaska? Students explore the topic, gather evidence, explain and justify the evidence, and reflect on the implication of information collected. If they need clarification, the teacher is available for questions. As such, students develop an in-depth understanding of concepts to apply in the real world.     

Kinesthetic learning

Instructors should involve more physical activities in their teaching. Teachers and students should apply kinesthetic learning, which is more tactical and hands-on, building on multiple intelligence and cognitive abilities. This technique involves more physical tasks rather than class lectures. Students can gain hands-on experience. The learning process can include role-playing, using drama and sports activities, building, and drawing. Kinesthetic classroom activities keep students engaged at all times.

This learning style can make academic results better as it facilitates more movement, engagement, and creativity. Students can choose what activities they want to engage in experience new skills (Logsdon, 2020). The teaching methodology is mode adaptable in classroom settings.

Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence describes bodily-kinesthetic learning as the ability to acquire knowledge and process information through physical body movements, control, and expression. Howard’s theory provides insights into how learning occurs, suggesting eight or nine intelligence in different parts of the brain that serve varying purposes. When a part of the brain is damaged, its functioning is affected. Some intelligences are stronger than others, and people can learn new things by using the more robust intelligence to support the weaker intelligence.

People are unique because of how multiple intelligences interact. Linguistic/verbal and logical/mathematical intelligence possess a more traditional value, but realizing the various students’ needs requires other parts’ engagement. According to Gardner, people cannot function the same since they possess varying brain physiology. This concept insights the need for teachers to offer numerous learning opportunities that touch on several intelligences (Linell, 2017). More substantial parts of the brain can be used to develop the weaker ones.

Bodily-kinesthetic learners can solve problems better using parts of the body or the whole body. Body movement involves emotions that portray the cognitive features of bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. Learners of this nature learn more by participating rather than observing. These students like to move around and involve non-verbal cues. Teachers need to design significant physical articulation activities that relate to the concepts and topics.  

Kinesthetic learning applies a tactical approach where teachers try to facilitate learning by addressing various learners’ characteristics. Learners easily remember through their movements and those of others. There are more object touching and manipulation during lessons. Everyday kinesthetic activities include drawing, modeling, dancing, drafting, sculpting, and athletics. These students learn best when there is more freedom to apply their tactile senses and motor movements. When the approach is more actively engaging, students remember things for a long time (Armstrong, 2009). Kinesthetic learners perform well in role-playing, lab experiments, and demonstrations.

When the material is more focused on reading and writing, these students do less and need examples of physical actions related to the topic for them to connect. Different cultures have different physical articulation abilities. Kinesthetic intelligence has cross-cultural importance in learning as teachers can address learners’ needs from various societies.

Technology also adds to kinesthetic learners using and manipulating devices such as mouse navigation and screen touching. Approaches such as keyboarding offer more physical contact that can be suitable for this type of learner. Kinesthetic learning works well with music and drama students.

For instance, to learn and understand musical attributes such as harmony, form, rhythm, melody, and texture, students integrate hand and body movements. Learners can use body movements to create a rhythm and dance to understand the music form. Kinesthetic motions help students to feel the music, understand the meaning of the music, and create a long-term memory about these musical elements.

Choirs, bands, orchestra, and poets integrate the bodily-kinesthetic style to show sincere appreciation expressions. Kinesthetic learners find it easy to demonstrate their skills in music schools.    

Expeditionary learning

Learners should go on expeditions and participate in an in-depth investigation of topics related to their learning field and affect their community. Teachers and students should embrace learning through motivational and cognitive processes built on the emotional, societal, and cognitive learning aspects.

This technique is project-based and allows students to relate what they have learned in class to the real world. Students develop ideally in their problem-solving skills since they can be able to apply coursework content and concepts.

Students can travel to sights, conduct statistical studies about cause and effect concepts. Learners can understand and contemplate the extent of the problem. Students are also able to understand and reflect on circumstances and try to formulate and actively implement solutions. Expeditionary learning differs from the traditional system where students have to sit in class and study different subjects.

The technique is more engaging and involves interdisciplinary projects developed to improve academic standards and facilitate a healthy school culture.

Expeditionary learning facilitates high academic achievements and additional motivation for students ready to pick on complex issues and work that matters to the community (Evolve, n.d.). Expeditions are usually done in small groups and require high-level cooperation and collaboration. The academic achievements in these expeditions are beyond test scores and grades.

The theory of action, which emphasizes motivation, character, and engagement, offers more insight into expeditionary learning (Beesley, Clark, Barker, Germeroth & Apthorp, 2010). As students are expected to achieve academic goals beyond grades, they must showcase a social character that contributes to a healthy learning environment.

The learning is mastery-oriented, intrinsically motivating, adding to students’ self-efficacy. The theory focuses on character and motivation, creating a feeling of engagement, persistence, self-driven effort, and identification.

Learners need development in social, emotional, and motivational domains. Efforts should not be to develop one particular domain but should pay attention to all domains. Meg Campbell’s phrase “The Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound Design” inspired teachers and specialists to re-evaluate how to teach students (Stringfield, Ross & Smith, 2012).

The phrase portrays people as curious characters who want to know about the world, and rather than running from what matters, and people should go out and learn it. Expeditionary learning excitingly involves students. 

Expeditions primarily involve intense and focused studies that last for around six months and require physical involvement in the real world. Teachers are more interested in expeditionary learning as it facilitates individual character, teamwork, and appreciation of circumstances.

The technique is now integrated with almost all fields and facets of education. Expeditionary learning drives self-discovery and individual investment. It has engaging and exciting ideas, learners own the learning, high compassion, and connection, and students can experience real success and real failure. Students learn to work together and push each other to the limit.

The learning process is inclusive and adheres to cultural and academic diversity. Students develop relationships with nature, have personal time to process, digest, and reflect on the broader context of their lives and the world. Expeditionary learners develop empathy for the community and the environment and teach others about essential concepts, sharing their knowledge, which boosts their understanding and mastery (Beesley, Clark, Barker, Germeroth & Apthorp, 2010). Expeditionary learning works well with biological studies, such as studying the evolution and distribution of organisms.

Students in organism evolution and distribution classes need to be in the field and collect supportive evidence. Students embark on expeditions to learn about the adaptability and transformation of different living things in their environment. Data collected in these expeditions enrich their biological research.

The information collected during fieldwork is brought to the lab or school for analysis and synthesis. Students in biological courses learn best through research, which requires an expeditionary approach to develop insights and relationships between classroom concepts and the real world. Expeditions tend to strengthen long-term memorization of course content.      

Personalized learning

Teachers should adopt educational models that follow plans specific to students’ interests and skills. Instructors and learners should evaluate students’ cognition quality and determine individual knowledge reinforcement strategies. Personalized learning can be confused with differentiated learning. However, the latter tries to address students’ particular needs, and personalized learning is about personal interests and convenience. The main differentiating factor between personalized learning and differentiated instruction is that in personalized learning, students make decisions and guide learning.

In contrast, in differentiated instructions, teachers try to respond to varying learners’ needs and developing strategies to address individual needs. Personalized learning enables students and instructors to have a healthy relationship that allows a seamless learning experience. Students possess self-direction and choice in learning materials and the environment. Evaluation is also tailored and primarily competency-based, which requires students to progress to the next topic or level after they have mastered the current one (, n.d.).

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Cognition and Learning
Cognition and Learning

This technique encourages students to not only work for their grades but also master topics through individual research. Personalized learning also involves time out of the classroom and also time spaces in learners’ everyday schedules. The method is more student-centered, but teachers must guide through lessons, conduct regular assessments, review assessment data, and help students plan their learning time substantially. The technique allows the learner to have a firmer grasp of the topics.

Personalized learning activities are student-initiated and driven by their interests and experiences. Students have a say in decision making, but the teacher’s guidance is vital. A personalized learning experience is relevant to particular students based on their personal needs and interests. Tailoring learning experiences is a critical element of personalized learning, a model that embraces each student’s varying strengths and weaknesses. Teachers and students work together to develop learning plans based on how the students learn, what they know, and the skills they want to acquire.

Students work closely with instructors to set short-term and long-term learning objectives. This process helps learners develop self-drive, ownership, independence, and attain required academic standards. Personalized learning is not special education but tries to adjust to individualized learning programs and convenience.

Personalized learning works best with institutions that use students’ profiles, have personalized educational paths, apply competency-based assessment, and have flexible learning environments (, n.d.). Personalized learning is beneficial since students learn at their own pace and have the time to master and reflect on what they learned.

The MI theory suggests that intra-personal and inter-personal intelligences are required in personalized projects. To launch personalized plans, students first need to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses and learn how to collaborate and implement their plans and visions to attain personal and academic goals (Armstrong, 2009). Most students embark on personalized learning to have more understanding of problematic areas like numerical. Students face challenges dealing with numbers and require more personal time.

For instance, algebra requires high-level attention and understanding, which is quite difficult in a classroom setting. Therefore, students often develop personal plans with teachers to get extra help with mathematical concepts. The students learn at their own pace and enjoy doing it. When students enjoy complex mathematic topics like algebra, they develop a mastery brain and are less frustrated when failing to get the correct answer.   

Game-based learning

Instructors should involve games in their teaching process. Teachers and students should work together to design and select games that facilitate cognitive development and learning. Games offer high-level student engagement in classroom learning. This technique facilitates soft skill acquisition needed in everyday life. Learners also develop a mastery learning approach and focus less on grades. Game-based learning involves quests to attain a particular objective. Learners select actions, experiment on them, and reflect upon the experience.

This method includes motivational badges that students gain after reaching certain levels, making progress, and achievements, just like those on their favorite games. Teachers need substantial planning to decide what games are best linked with specific topics and concepts. Students remain focused throughout the learning process and can operate at their own pace, making uninterrupted decisions about their gamified coursework (Plass, Homer & Kinzer, 2015). This method strengthens learner’s problem-solving skills since they can use what is learned in class to make moves in the game to reach a specific target.

Constructivist pedagogies form the basis of game-based learning, which involves providing students with needed tools to develop processes that solve problems. This concept encourages students’ participation and interaction with their environment. The theory of game-based learning stands upon safe practice, interaction, and experiential learning (Gamelearn, n.d.). Games provide non-threatening scenarios to experiment with. Students gain knowledge through practice and interaction with the environment and their fellow students.

Game-based learning can capture learners’ attention and ensure maximum involvement. The technique is highly motivational, and the learning becomes dynamic and exciting, helping students achieve their ultimate learning objectives. The method lays out scenarios that require decision making and reflection in solving problems.

Students acquire knowledge about concepts and strengthen their cognitive abilities generated from reality analysis, conflict resolution, and critical thinking (Anderson, 2005). Students also have control of their learning process and can obtain individualized feedback about what they have learned and where they need to improve. Learners become creative by addressing challenges and solving problems through imaginations.

Another benefiting factor is acquiring soft skills such as self-control, negotiation, emotional integrity, communication, and conflict resolution. Learners also develop computer skills while working in a digitalized environment. Game-based learning serves linguistic students well. Games such as word-forming, spell checking, and word choice improves the learning ability of language students. Games create an exciting environment.

Word games have proved to improve test scores. Games like WordFind are useful and fun while studying spellings and vocabulary. Game-based learning and language teaching fit naturally as it plays an essential role in word knowledge and second language learning.


Anderson, J. R. (2005). Cognitive psychology and its implications. Macmillan.

Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. Ascd.

Bächtold, M. (2013). What do students “construct” according to constructivism in science education?. Research in science education43(6), 2477-2496.

Beesley, A., Clark, T., Barker, J., Germeroth, C., & Apthorp, H. (2010). Expeditionary Learning Schools: Theory of Action and Literature Review of Motivation, Character, and Engagement. Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL).

Dostál, J. (2015). Inquiry-based instruction: Concept, essence, importance, and contribution. Olomouc: Palacký University, ISBN 978-80-244-4507-6, doi 10.5507/pdf.15.24445076

Evolve. (n.d.). Expeditionary Learning: A Journey to Knowledge. Retrieved from

Gamelearn. (n.d.). The Theory of Game-Based Learning. Retrieved from (n.d.). Personalized Learning. Retrieved from

Linell, P. (2017). Dialogue, dialogical, and interactivity: A conceptually bewildering field?. Language and Dialogue, 7(3), 301-335.Poole, D. (2007). Learning theories: constructivism and multiple intelligences.

Logsdon, A. (2020). Bodily-Kinesthetic Learning Style and Characteristics. Learning Through Physical Hand and Body Movement. 

Madhuri, G. V., Kantamreddi, V. S. S. N., & Prakash Goteti, L. N. S. (2012). Promoting higher-order thinking skills using inquiry-based learning. European Journal of Engineering Education37(2), 117-123.

National Institute for Health (2005). Doing Science: The Process of Science Inquiry.

Plass, J. L., Homer, B. D., & Kinzer, C. K. (2015). Foundations of game-based learning. Educational Psychologist, 50(4), 258-283.

Rasheed, F., & Wahid, A. (2018). The Theory of Differentiated Instruction and Its Applicability: An E-Learning Perspective. International Journal of Technical and Non-Technical Research9(4).

Stringfield, S. C., Ross, S. M., & Smith, L. (2012). The Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound Design. In Bold Plans for School Restructuring (pp. 119-148). Routledge.

As you continue reading, remember that our top and qualified writers are here to help with any of your assignments . All you need to do is place an order with us.(Cognition and Learning)

Cognition and Learning
Cognition and Learning


Cognition and Learning

HUDK  4029

First Assignment

            From the material covered in this course, make at least six recommendations for how students should study (or how teachers should teach) so that they will understand, remember and be able to apply what they learn better.  For each of the recommendations include the following four things:

            1.  A statement of the recommendation in everyday language so that anybody can understand it

            2.  A statement of the recommendation in the technical language of cognitive psychology covered in this course

            3.  Justification of the recommendation citing cognitive theories and studies covered in this course (you should reference at least 3 supporting studies for each recommendation)

            4.  An example of how to apply the recommendation to study some content of interest to you.  (Be specific in your description of the application and how it relates to your recommendation)

For the applications, you can choose some content you are interested in (e.g., studying algebra, music appreciation, etc.)  and carry it through the examples for all the studying recommendations, or you can use a different content area to illustrate each recommendation.  In the beginning of your write-up describe briefly the content to be studied and what kinds of students you have in mind. 

Your recommendations, while specific, should be applicable to more than one content area (e.g., don’t give a recommendation in terms of solving linear equations, but stated in a way that applies to any skill like that).  Draw upon the course sessions from Introduction through Perception (i.e. first half of the course).

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