Regarding stereotypes and prejudice, which statement is true?

1. The more people there are at the scene of an accident, theless likely it is that individuals will step up to lend a hand.
This phenomenon is referred to as

A. antisocial behavior.
B. diffusion of responsibility.
C. crowd apathy.
D. diffusion of interest.

2. The foot-in-the-door technique and the that’s-not-all technique are persuasive tactics for gaining

A. obedience. C.compliance.
B. conformity. D. reciprocity.

3. In the context of stress, the flip side of an uplift is

A. a hassle.
B. background chaos.
C. a personal stressor.
D. any cataclysmic event.
4. In the “teacher-learner” experiments conducted by StanleyMilgram, ______ percent of the experimental subjects eventuallyapplied the “lethal” 450-volt shock to the “learner.”
A. 2 C.35
B. 15 D.65

5. Four steps are involved in a person’s decision to offerassistance in an emergency
situation. The third step is

A. assuming responsibility for rendering assistance.
B. interpreting the event as requiring someone to offerassistance.
C. deciding how to help.
D. appraisal of one’s skills and experience in dealing withemergencies.

6. Particular factors encourage people to be drawn into liking oneanother. In this context, the reciprocity of liking effect isprimarily associated with

A.exposure. C.similarity.
B. propinquity. D. physicalattractiveness.

7. According to your text, whether you’re persuaded by a messagewill primarily depend on which factor?

A. Your perception or understanding of the recipient of themessage
B. Your characteristics, including your personality andintelligence
C. Whether you receive the message while at work or at home
D. The nature of the message as it relates to your temperament

8. The first stage in the GAS model of stress is

A. analyzing a stressor. C.resistance.
B. adaptation. D.alarm and mobilization.

9. Mandy has decided that she has no control over the aversivestimuli she encounters at work and at home day by day. Thus, shehas given up trying to make her life better.
Psychologists would say Mandy’s worldview illustrates

A. emotion-focused coping. C.problem-focused coping.
B. learnedhelplessness. D.learned avoidant coping.

10. Aggressiveness builds up in people because of human nature. Itcan be safely
expressed before it reaches a “boiling point” through the catharsisoffered by
aggressive sports and games. These kinds of ideas are associatedwith

A. instinct approaches to aggression.
B. observational learning theories.
C. frustration-aggression theory.
D. social learning theories.
11. With respect to the theory of cognitive dissonance, people canhold contradictory ideas in their minds. If you become aware of thedissonance between two ideas, you could pursue which of thefollowing strategies to reduce the dissonance?

A. You can repress one of the cognitions into your unconscious mindand go about
your day.
B. You can change the way you perceive the ideas by increasing theimportance of one
of them.
C. You can modify your views of the two contradictory ideas.
D. You can tell yourself that the contradictory ideas arecontradictory.

12. Sternberg’s model of the kinds of love identifies which of thefollowing basic
components?

A. Spirituality C.Consummate attraction
B. Commitment/decision D.Sexuality

13. As discussed in your text, the Implicit Association Test(IAT)

A. is based on a culture-free questionnaire.
B. has revealed that most people aren’t prejudiced.
C. requires subjects to react to a series of black and whitefaces.
D. requires people to openly express and reveal their latentprejudices.

14. Which statement about stress is true?

A. Stress is rarely related to how we perceive a situation.
B. Background stressors include daily hassles.
C. Cataclysmic events always produce profound and lingeringstress.
D. A job promotion qualifies as a personal stressor.

15. In the context of social cognition, what is the primary importance of sachems?

A. They provide accurate and truthful information about socialsituations and other
people.
B. They help us differentiate good people from bad people.
C. They help us organize store, recall, and information about otherpeople.
D. They allow us to correctly identify the central traits of otherpeople.

16. The last stage in the GAS model of stress is
A. flight or fight. C.resistance.
B. adaptation. D.exhaustion.

17. Regarding stereotypes and prejudice, which statement is true?

A. A self-fulfilling prophecy always precedes prejudice.
B. Stereotypes may be positive or negative.
C. Where there are stereotypes we always find prejudice.
D. Discrimination is to action as prejudice is to attitudes.
18. The concept of aggression cues is associated with

A. social learning theories.
B. observational learning theories.
C. frustration-aggression theory.
D. the work of animal behaviorist Konrad Lorenz.

19. Which statement best expresses the concept of the self-servingbias?
A. We nearly always assume that other people’s failures are due totheir personal
characteristics.
B. We tend to think other people are similar to us, even when wefirst meet them.
C. We assume that situational causes are brought about by theenvironment.
D. We attribute our successes to our skills and abilities and ourfailures to external
factors.

20. According to Sternberg, intimacy plus decision/commitmentidentifies
A. companionate love. C. truefriendship.
B. liking. D.fatuous love.

21. On first meeting Ian Campbell from Edinburgh, Clark Mason, anative of Seattle,
immediately decides that he and Ian have similar attitudes,feelings, and worldviews.
Psychologists say this sort of thing illustrates the

A. fundamental attribution error. C.self-serving bias.
B. assumed-similarity bias. D.“birds of a feather” error.

22. In respect to the foundations of prejudice, social identitytheory is associated with the concept of

A. modern racism. C.ethnocentrism.
B. self-fulfilling prophecy. D.stereotypical discrimination.

23. In hearing a persuasive message, some people will evaluate itin terms of factors that have nothing to do with the content of themessage. When this happens, psychologists speak of _______ routeprocessing.

A. incidental C.inductive
B. central D.peripheral
24. In general, the approach to stress embraced bypsychoneuroimmunologists focuses on

A. the brain and the body.
B. the outcomes of stress.
C. psychological factors and the immune system.
D. the brain and the immune system.

25. With respect to the fundamental attribution error, it turns outthat in other cultures, like those of Asia, there’s a/an _______orientation to others that emphasizes
interdependence.

A. collectivist C.individualistic
B. intrapersonal D. philosophical

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