Provide an equal division of work and responsibility between the manager and the worker.

Question
Conference Presentation Development
Question # 1
Details:
This assignment requires you to select two topics from predetermined management theories presented in the course. You must provide a rationale for selecting each topic as appropriate for an academic conference presentation. You will then write deconstructions of scholarly research sources related to the two topics.
Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:
An empirical article is defined as an article written by the person or group who conducted the original study. The article will include a description of the study, an introduction, an explanation of the study’s methodology, a presentation of the results of the study, and a conclusion that discusses the results and suggests topics for further study.
Limit the use of direct quotations. Wherever possible, paraphrase information rather than directly quoting from the source.
Synthesize and summarize ideas and write about them using your own words. Material should not be copied and pasted from a source directly into a project.
This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for completion of the assignment.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
Use the following guidelines to prepare each deconstruction:
Introduction (125 words): State the author and title of the source. Briefly describe the purpose, intent, and scope of the study, including the statement of the problem, hypotheses or research questions, and key concepts.
Methodology (250 words): Describe the research design, population sample, data collection procedure, and other procedures used in the study.
Results (250 words): Briefly describe the data collected and the findings of the study including the interpretation and implications of the study.
Conclusion (125 words): Briefly critique the presentation of the study, including the credentials of the researcher(s). Provide a summary assessment of the study.
Select a topic from the course within either classical or behavioral management theory.
Provide a written statement of approximately 200-250 words which includes:
Your rationale why the topic would be appropriate to research and to submit for acceptance to an academic conference presentation.
Identification of an appropriate conference you would consider submitting the research to for presentation and justify why you selected the particular conference.
Prepare deconstructions, approximately 750 words each, of two empirical articles that are related to the topic.
Select a topic from the course within either modern or global management theory.
Provide a written statement of approximately 200-250 words which includes:
Your rationale why the topic would be appropriate to research and to submit for acceptance to an academic conference presentation.
Identification of an appropriate conference you would consider submitting the research to for presentation and justify why you selected the particular conference.
Prepare deconstructions of two empirical articles, approximately 750 words each, that are related to the topic.
Submit the two topics, with all their required elements, to your instructor as a single deliverable. Your instructor will review your topics and return to you an approval of one of them for development throughout the remaining parts of the assignment.
Rubrics
Question # 2
Details:
This is the second part of the three-part assignment. For this assignment, you will conduct and write a brief review of literature on the topic approved by your instructor.
Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:
An empirical article is defined as one that reports actual results of a research study. The article will include a description of the study, an introduction, an explanation of the study’s methodology, a presentation of the results of the study, and a conclusion that discusses the results and suggests topics for further study.
Limit the use of direct quotations. Wherever possible, paraphrase information rather than directly quoting from the source.
Synthesize and summarize ideas and write about them using your own words. Material should not be copied and pasted from a source directly into a project.
This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
Survey peer-reviewed, empirical articles on your topic. Identify the main authors and thinkers, and describe the following:
Their theses or hypotheses.
Their key contributions to this area of management theory.
The applicability/relevance of their findings in the 21st century organization.
In a paper of 500-750 words, write a review of literature that includes the following elements:
A synthesis and summary of foundational and current research on the topic.
The identification of and evidence to support a gap in the literature, an area of the literature that needs further research, an area of the literature that is particularly fascinating, or any interesting aspect of the literature you have observed.
Evidence in the literature to support or refute at least one of the reviewed articles.
Question # 3
Details:
This is the third and last part of the three-part assignment. For this assignment, you will prepare a presentation of sufficient quality to submit for approval to an academic conference.
Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:
Limit the use of direct quotations. Wherever possible, paraphrase information rather than directly quoting from the source.
Synthesize and summarize ideas and write about them using your own words. Material should not be copied and pasted from a source directly into a project.
This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
Prepare your conference presentation by using the following guidelines:
Identify the conference to which you selected to submit this presentation.
State the thesis clearly and succinctly.
Provide an exposition of the literature and weave the synthesis of the literature into the body and conclusion of the presentation.
Develop a PowerPoint presentation of approximately 20-25 slides. Slides should include the following:
A title slide.
A justification of the study.
The review of literature.
A suggested question(s) for further research.
A list of references.
Speaker notes for each slide.
Classical Management Foundations: Scientific Management
Introduction
Scientific management theory postulates that decisions about organizations and job design should be based on empirical evidence of individual situations. This module examines the application of this approach and its implications for managers.
Precursors to Scientific Management
It is most likely that scientific management, as it is generally understood, would not have been conceived had it not been for the industrial revolution. The birth of the industrial revolution can be traced back to Great Britain, specifically to advancements in science and technology and the birth of a new age of scientific inquiry. Production methods evolved from the craft guilds to the use of steam engines, especially in the production of textiles in Great Britain. Early industries were organized as partnerships or sole proprietorships. With the growth of railroads, came large amounts of capital and the growth of joint-stock companies. However, the absence of uniform laws in Great Britain led to wide-scale misconduct by public officials. Industry in the United States was growing at fast pace. As companies grew, so did the complexities of organizational management. Managers were faced with increased challenges of motivating employees and optimizing worker efficiency.
The Beginning to Scientific Management
Scientific management formally began through the work of Fredrick Taylor. As a patternmaker and machinist at Enterprise Hydrolytic, he observed several unfavorable conditions including worker soldiering (the intentional restriction of output), poor management practices, and an overall lack of cohesion between workers and managers (Wren, 2004). Recognizing some of these same issues as a gang-boss at Midvale Steel, Taylor came to the conclusion that management was to blame and that management should “be much more resourceful and aggressive in the improvement of work methods” (Heizer & Render, 2006, p. 9).
As a result, Taylor, educated as an engineer, began to view work as a series of tasks, and believed that one could empirically determine the right ways to perform tasks. Taylor’s system focused on observing work, eliminating unnecessary movements and developing a time standard that could be used as a benchmark for an incentive system (Wren, 2004). The system emphasized the “minute examination of individual tasks” (Crainer, 2003, p. 276) with the goal of a more efficient operation. Workers were to be paid based on how well they performed against a predetermined standard; the system emphasized paying “men not positions” (Taylor, 1895, p. 857). Not surprising, Taylor’s system focused on picking the right people for the job. He devised the use of instruction cards that helped to train workers on the single most efficient way to perform a task (Taylor, 1911). Taylor also created the position of supervisor of function, which focused on managing the functional aspects of the process, not specific supervision of people.
The Four Principles of Scientific Management
Taylor’s scientific management focused on efficiency to improve productivity. It is summarized by the following four principles (Taylor, 1911):
Principle (Taylor, 1911)
Explanation
Develop a science for each element of a person’s work.
The key issue here was to replace the rule-of-thumb approach to completing work.
Scientifically select, train, teach, and develop the worker.
The key issue here was to align the worker to the process that he/she was best suited for, and then provide the necessary training to develop the worker to be efficient. Previously, workers would choose their work and then attempt to perform the tasks themselves.
Cooperate with workers to ensure that work is being performed in accordance with the principles of the science from which the work tasks were conceived.
Encourage management to cooperate actively with workers using a scientific approach to efficiency.
Provide an equal division of work and responsibility between the manager and the worker.
Previously, management focused less on process and more on supervision. Taylor suggested that management take on an active role of defining and monitoring the functional aspects of the process and not necessarily the specific supervision of people.
Scientific management emphasized management and worker cooperation since “management and men cooperate in every way, so as to turn out each day the maximum quantity and best quality of work” (Taylor, 1895, p. 858).
Initial Extensions of Scientific Management
Wren (2004) notes that early in the 20th century, other researchers advanced the principles of scientific management in industry and helped to popularize it. Barth was the most orthodox in his approach and incorporated scientific management at several companies including Watertown Arsenal and Franklin Motor Car Company. Gantt, early in his career, partnered with Taylor in promoting scientific management at various companies and eventually devised a modified task and bonus system. Furthermore, Gantt advocated the use of a summary bar chart that provided a means to understand the overall status of a project with respect to an overall pictorial timeline.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth further pioneered the concepts of motion study and emphasized the reduction in worker fatigue (Crainer, 2003). The Gilbreths promoted the use of micro-motion studies in place of a subjective time-study person with a stopwatch. Using a camera and a chronometer, the Gilbreths were able to obtain accurate results with respect to observing and timing specific work tasks. The idea here was to increase output by “eliminating unnecessary and inefficient motions and substituting more productive ones, driving up output by greater worker effectiveness, rather than by faster speed” (Price, 1989, p. 3).
Emerson applied scientific management at Burlington Railroad and his methods were “praised as an example of what scientific management could do for the railroads” (Wren, 2004, p. 174). Munsterberg introduced psychological testing techniques in an attempt to match a worker to the best job and provided a foundation for the disciplines of industrial psychology and later personnel management (Wren, 2004). Others attempted to bridge scientific management from industry to the public sector. Cooke brought scientific management to the Public Works Department for the city of Philadelphia and achieved successful results (Wren, 2004).
On the international front, scientific management initially spread to European countries and the Soviet Union. Lenin advocated its use after the 1917 revolution and expressed it as the “most progressive means to achieve socialist revolution” (Wren, 2004, p. 238). Scientific management was also adopted in Japan to improve worker skills. Scientific management eventually became an international movement (Wren, 2004).
Criticisms of Scientific Management
As scientific management grew, so did its detractors. The Hoxie Report provided insight into organized labor’s position against scientific management arguing that it “monopolized knowledge and power in the hands of management by denying the worker a voice in setting work standards and in determining wage rates and conditions for employment” (Wren, 2004, p. 238). In response to the Gilbreth’s time studies research, unions argued that time studies were merely a management tool whose goal was to increase the pace of production (Price, 1989). Further criticisms point out that scientific management has a dehumanizing reliance on measurement. Drucker would later suggest that scientific management denies integration and that it divorces planning from doing (Crainer, 2003). With that in mind, scientific management was most used in “batch assembly (job shop) and labor intensive non-assembly operations” (Wren, 2004, p. 238) but became less useful in mass production environments. Yet on a large scale, scientific management practices were adopted at companies such as General Motors (Wren, 2004).
Scientific Management Today
Today, the term scientific management takes on a historical tenor in which the ideas of Taylor and the Gilbreths may seem antiquated to those involved in organizational operations. Indeed, the breaking down of complex processes to individual tasks seems to be a given and thus very intuitive to any 21st century operations manager. Yet the ideas associated with scientific management persist (Crainer, 2003). The simplification of complex tasks is foundational to the study of organizational efficiency in any setting (Wren, 2004).
The search for “efficiency through science” (Wren, 2004, p. 247) promoted by scientific management have found its way to other techniques that are widely practiced today. Wren (2004) highlights several techniques that are used to optimize efficiency. The crossover chart is one example. The crossover chart offers a technique to understand which process out of a given set of processes is most cost efficient at a certain range of production volumes (Heizer & Render, 2006). Closely related to the crossover chart is determination of the breakeven point, which is a fundamental practice in cost accounting. Flexible budgeting arose from scientific management and extended from postmortem accounting, a practice that Taylor deplored (Wren, 2004), to the projection of budgets based on multiple volumetric values. Some other extensions of scientific management include the application of process flow diagramming techniques, originally conceived by the Gilbreths, to operations management (Heizer & Render, 2006), and the use of Gantt’s bar chart, which has been widely adopted in project management (Gray & Larson, 2005).
One contemporary industry that applies the job specialization aspects of scientific management is the call center. A relatively recent study showed that Taylor’s scientific management concepts extend well beyond the manufacturing environment and into modern call center organization (Bain, Watson, Mulvey, Taylor, & Gall, 2002). Job specialization for the call center employee is highly specific and time sensitive. Some examples of specific metrics tracked include abandon rate, average talk time, average speed of answer, and first call resolution (Bradshaw & Kingma, 2007). Meeting such metrics requires intensive job-specific training whereby time-sensitive operations become critical to the success of a call center organization.
Thus, while the term scientific management is not used when referring to contemporary management practices, other manifestations of several of its individual elements are apparent in management practices today.
Conclusion
One cannot underestimate the impact of scientific management. Its focus on job design based on empirical evidence of individual tasks helped to revolutionize production practices. It also led to the emergence of the social movement in management theory.
References
Bain, P., Watson, A., Mulvey, G., Taylor, P., & Gall, G. (2002). Taylorism, targets and the pursuit of quantity and quality by call center management. New Technology, Work & Employment, 17(3), 170-185.
Bradshaw, D., & Kingma, G. (June 2007). Top 10 call centre metrics and what they mean to you. Retrieved May, 17 2010 from
http://www.the-cma.org/?WCE=C=47%7CK=227275
Crainer, S. (2003). The ultimate business library: The greatest books that made management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Gray, C. F., & Larson, E. W. (2005). Project Management. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Heizer, J., & Render, B. (2006). Operations Management, (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Price, B. (1989). Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and the manufacture and marketing of motion study, 1908-1924. Business and Economic History, 18, 88-98
Taylor, F. (1895). A piece rate system being a step toward partial solution of the labor problem. Transaction of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 16, 856-903.
Taylor, F. (1911). The principles of scientific management. New York: Harper and Row.
Wren, D. A. (2004

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