A public opinion poll as well as abundant researchesconducted in the recent years has indicated that china’s global influence has risen over the years. Surveys have been conducted in the Asian continent, Africa and Latin America. Most respondents in this survey believe that the china has made a great leap in technology and economic matters and its impact has been felt all over the world. China is the most densely populated nation in the world. A comprehensive census indicates that the Chinese population is a quarter of the world population. The China republic has a system of government that is not devolved. State power within the people’s republic of China is exercised through the communist party of China (Davis, 1999, 124).The whole authority of administration of this nation lies on the central government. Lack of a devolved system in such an expansive country is lethal and can have lethal implications. Renowned political scientists in conjunction with expatriate in economic matters have proposed that adoption of a federal system would be the best solution to this threat facing China and is hampering its efforts of becoming a major word power.
Problems of Stateness
China is strategically which gives it advantage over other states in becoming a world major power. The country also has a dynamic population and is endowed with fresh brains. This has resulted in a massive growth of its economy over the years. The country holds a better share of the world’s trade. The country also enjoys military supremacy and hence is safe from internal aggressors (Andrew and Scobell, 2012, 15). It has become a country with national interests at almost every corner of the world. This state has been seen as a great threat to the United States of America’s predominance.The republic of china has managed to embrace peaceful political leadership. Two peaceful leadership transitions have occurred in the country.
Some political scientists argue it out that Stateness is a prerequisite for democracy (Davis, 1999, 125). China is formerly a communist country. Stateness concepts is to great extent necessary for the development of the democratic attributes of electoral rights, political liberties, the rule of law and social rights. China was a vehement supporter of communism during the period of cold war. They supported the Soviet Union’s quest to spread communism to the world.
The communist party of China was formed in the 1921 and was under the stewardship of Mao, who was a renowned philosopher. The man, Mao led the people’s republic of China into a revolution that saw the adoption of communism. This meant adoption of the soviet’s model of development in China. Afterwards, in the Sino-soviet split of 1950s a dynamic gradual change occurred as Mao ditched Marxism and Leninism. Mao being a philosopher developed his own description of communism. This was due to the stand take by the Soviet leader Nikolai that a peaceful relationship and coexistence should be fostered. After Mao’s demise, China adopted market socialism under the direction Deng Xiaoping. Under Deng’s watch, the People’s Republic of China experienced modernization in terms of agriculture, industry, science and technology. Deng is credited for converting china into a world economic power (Andrew and Scobell, 2012, 143).
China has been a communist country for over fifty years. Before the introduction of communism in this state, abject poverty and war was widespread. Mao’s introduction and application of communism worked miracles. Mao being a military commander also worked tirelessly to ensure the spread of communism around the globe for instance; China intervened in the Korean wars of 1950 to 1953 in support of spread of communism. At some time, protests led by students and supported by later by the workers broke out in the country (Andrew and Scobell, 2012, 243). In the subsequent revolt, a fierce war which was being championed by the Martial law was put in place. This resulted in the death of many especially the government opposes.
China is a unitary state that is run by a central dual government (Davis, 1999, 125). The only existing political party in this sovereign republic is the Communist party which is the founding and the reigning party. The communist party however exists alongside the united front. China’s governance up to date takes a communist approach and multiparty democracy has not been introduced. China is still in Stateness a situation that occurs prior to democratization. However this Stateness has threats which it pauses to the success of the China republic.
Stateness is a comprehensive term used to refer to issues regarding boundaries, citizenship and identity. Democratization cannot coexist with pluralism. China is a pluralistic nation with a single political party.The Stateness problem can be described as the difficulties experienced by states in winning the loyalty of the diverse populations in a particular country (Andrew and Scobell, 2012). The Stateness problem mostly arises when the different diverse populations make an attempt to secede from the main central country to form other new nations or to join other existing nations.
China occupies a large geographical area, has numerous societies and is the country in the world that borders the most states. However, despite the tremendous strides the country has made in economics, military and technology the state is not a subject of broad consensus with respect to both its geographical boundaries and its membership. Some portions of the Republic of China are not fully committed to the endorsed concept of the larger China republic. These include; Tibet, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Mongolia and Hong Kong (Davis, 1999). Despite these areas having disparities in their defiance to the central government, they serve as good examples of the defiant areas. For instance, HongKong despite being geographicallysmall is economically independent of the China republic. Taiwan poses a similar threat like its counterpart, HongKong. The HongKong fraternity is not a big threat as its inhabitants identify themselves with the People’s Republic of China. However, the fraternity treasures the separate economic system it has put in place.
The issues mentioned above are a true testimony that the expansive political and economic systems are slowly but gradually disintegrating. The attempt of certain areas to stand on their own can be termed as lethal to the journey of China to attain world military, political and economic supremacy.A number of resistance movements are arising at an alarming rate with the aim of seceding from the larger China (Andrew and Scobell, 2012, 345). The annual Victoria park demonstrations on the 6th of June are held by the Falun Gong movement. Intensification of such measures by the revolutionary movements and an up rise in other would to some extent result in overpowering of the central government. The defeat of the central government would mean a split by the areas that do not pay full allegiance to the People’s Republic of China’s concept. Most of these areas that are not fully loyal to the government are found on the periphery of this expansive republic.
Most of these areas that are defiant to the central authority are embracing democratic political structures. The People’s Republic of China itself has not fully embraced multiparty and democracy. The country still practices pluralism which does not offer a fertile breeding ground for democracy. Abraham Lincoln described democracy as the government of the people for the people and by the people. Ridiculously, the Republic of China has only one party which has no distinction with the government. There exists a possibility that the pro-democracy movements in HongKong could entice other Han areas of the China’s mainland to join their democratic movements which would be a risk to the Chinese regime (Davis, 1999, 134).
The Stateness issues have also soured the China’s international relations. Some of the China’s rivals who are in the battle for military, economic and political supremacy might take advantage of the Stateness concerns in China to weaken it. The United States of America for instance has been undertaking hidden interventions of the almost seceded states of Hong Kong and Taiwan. USA has been disguisedly using the quest of human rights as a ground to take intervention measures in Hong Kong. Currently, Hong Kong is a separate reporting entity to the United Nations on matters pertaining to human rights (Andrew and Scobell, 2012, 245). Taiwan to some extent is inspired by Hong Kong as it keeps a close eye on Hong Kong’s proceedings.These factors have been undermining Chinese’s sovereignty to a greater extent. Interventions of the internal affairs of this nation are adding salt to the injury.A sum up of all these factors is threatening the China’srise to the position of a major power in the world.
Problems posed by Tibet, Xinjiang and Taiwan
Tibet and Xinxiang are two underdeveloped provinces in the western part of the People’s Republic of China. Taiwan is an established city in the East of China. The three regions are posing Stateness associated glitches to the larger China. The regions have been holding separate pro-independence measures in a bid to secede for the People’s Republic of China. This regions have been continuously defying the concepts embraced the People’s Republic of China. The international community led by the USA has been making efforts to make Beijing grant the people in this region’s independence (Davis, 1999, 133). Therefore, they pose a great hazard to the journey of China towards becoming a world’s major power if they fail to co-operate with the set national economic, social and political policies.
Federalism as a measure to minimize Stateness related problems.
The Stateness problems however can be tackled and overcame only if the People’s Republic of China would take sound measures. Numerous political theories argue that the People’s Republic of China should embrace federalism as a measure to counter possible secession of some areas (Davis, 1999, 125). Federalism is a system of government in which the nation has been subdivided constitutionally into other areas called states or provinces that are governed in many aspects independently. In the federal system however, a governing head that represents overall authority of the nation is elected or chosen. Federalism is based upon democratic principles in which the authority to rule is shared between the national and the state governments.
The adoption of federalism in China would provide a lasting solution to the Stateness associated problems. Devolution would be of great importance as the devolved governments would provide checks to the central government. This would probably resolve the relationship disputes between the People’s Republic of China and the antagonistic Taiwan, Macau, Hong Kong and other areas that are non-collaborative to the People’s Republic of China’s concepts and principles. Devolution and other fundamental political reforms should be taken into consideration rather than clinging to a central authoritarian system which is more or less proving futility (Davis, 2012, 254). A combination of federalism and confederalism would seem to offer a promising alternative path forward ().
Advantages of the Hong Kong system of one country two systems
Hong Kong’s stability and development as an international city has been largely made possible by the principle of one country, two systems. The Hong Kong city is a pro-democratic city that has embraced a capitalist economic approach. This framework has ensured its continued economic supremacy. The city has maintained a distinct international identity as a business, financial, shipping and aviation center. Despite this success the city has not fully seceded from the larger China. This approach of one country to some extent is preferable if it is formalized as devolution. Nonetheless, this would only be applicable if the measures taken by HongKong which include an independent judiciary, a level playing ground for business and respected civil service would be applied in the larger devolution (Davis, 1999, 129).
In summary, for China to enjoy supremacy over the other nations in the world, it has to take precautions to hamper secession that is posing a great threat to the country. Adoption of a federal or a confederalistic system of government in this case is inevitable.