This article discusses a sample assignment solution about Department of Homeland Security Policies.
Week four assignment #2: Topic: DHS Policies directed at mitigating the threat of terrorism and large-scale criminality (of the type that threatens social and economic stability) when countering homegrown radicalization
Research should focus on one or more of the following:
– Distinguishing between international homeland security policies.
– Analysis of homeland security threats from domestic and international perspectives.
– Evaluation of homeland security strategies, laws and institutions.
– Comparisons of the roles of civilian authorities and military practices in homeland security issues.
– Analysis of the roles emergency management plays in response to homeland security issues in domestic and international environments.
– Appraisal of different ethical issues between international and domestic homeland security practices.
A title page with your name on it. Labeled topical headings (e.g., Introduction, Discussion, Conclusion, Recommendations, etc.) Length:
The report must contain a body of text approximating 1,750 – 2,250 words typed (about 7 to 9 pages double-spaced, 12 point font).
A reference page containing a minimum of five (5) course-external resources used and cited in the report.
References cited at the end of the report must be cited in text to illustrate how they were used. Written in APA Style
Department of Homeland Security Policies
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was founded in 2002 under the Homeland Security Act in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. It is a federal agency mandated to protect US citizens and property from terrorism, cyberterrorism, drug trafficking, disasters, and illegal immigration. In the US, homegrown terrorism is a significant threat to both citizens and institutions. Radicalization and homegrown terrorism are related, and understanding the correlations helps establish the motives for attacks of different scales (Bergen, Sterman, & Salyk-Virk, 2019).
According to the US Department of Homeland Security, DHS initiates strategic frameworks that would allow law enforcement to address the evolving challenge of terrorism and targeted violence. This narrows down to enhancing collaborations with civil authorities and the military, especially when pursuing aviation security and border security. Therefore, there is a need to examine some DHS policies on countering threats, adopting viable strategies, expounding roles of civil authorities, the military, and emergency management institutions while addressing ethical considerations.
Homeland Security Threats from Domestic and International Perspectives
The US government has the safety of Americans as its top priority, as seen in the delegation of roles and duties to several specialized agencies. Emerging threats have become increasingly complex, evolving in domestic and international spaces (Lundberg & Willis, 2015). These threats are inspired by organizations and individuals seeking to initiate attacks due to violent extremist ideologies. The US Department of Homeland Security has been a target for terrorist activities through direct attacks or extremist groups such as Al-Qaeda, inspiring criminal groups based in the United States (Givens, Busch, & Bersin, 2018).
Over the years, terrorist activities have infiltrated into online radicalization to violent extremism and disparate threats. Consequently, domestic actors pose a significant threat to traditional law enforcement investigation and disruption methods since their actions are planned and executed individually with no warning. Therefore, terrorism-related threats can be addressed by building on existing best practices, researching new and practical approaches, and developing strategic policies that prevent terrorism. DHS focuses on countering attacks initiated from within and outside US borders.
Developed countries have embraced the use of sophisticated technologies as a vital infrastructure in regular operations. However, threats to online programs and information compromise safety, especially with the rise of cybercrime. Cybercrime is inspired by terrorist groups that lure individuals, companies, and governments through money laundering, terrorism, and viruses. The role of DHS is to provide cybersecurity for all across the US.
Cybersecurity exemplifies the processes of reinforcing internet-connected devices such as software, hardware, and information from cyber-attacks. Therefore, the DHS responds to cybercrime by identifying specific avenues that terrorists may consider vulnerabilities so that necessary measures can be undertaken to avert terrorism within the institution and across the US.
Transportation Security Administration (TSA) was established following the 9/11 attacks to brace the country’s transportation framework security while ensuring the freedom of movement for commerce and people (Bergen, Sterman, & Salyk-Virk, 2019). Within one year, TSA presumed accountability for security at the nation’s airports and deployed a federal labor force to screen all the baggage and passengers of a commercial airline. Presently TSA vet’s hundred per cent of all the passengers out of, into, and within the USA through a TSA Secure Flight program.
TSA uses a layered and risk-based methodology of securing the US transportation system, working intimately with shareholders in rail, aviation, highway, pipeline, highway sectors, and partners in the intelligence community and law enforcement. TSA consistently established a standard for greatness in transportation security through its technologies, processes, people, and intelligence usage in driving operations.
Evaluation of Homeland Security Strategies, Laws, and Institutions
Since America is a sovereign country and the primary objective is the citizens’ security and safety, Homeland Security focuses on enhancing counter-terrorism strategies, laws, and institutions responsible for meeting American citizens’ interests (Lundberg & Willis, 2015). It includes focusing and optimizing available resources to counter and prevent terrorists from posing a direct threat to the US homeland.
In today’s security environment, enforcement agencies should examine broader national security perspectives to specific homeland security interests and concerns. This delineates what agencies should protect, how they protect, and what we protect them from. Therefore, the strategies and laws established by the US Department of Homeland Security address state and non-state actors, cyber-terrorism weapons of mass destruction, sources of domestic terrorism, and future technological challenges aggravated by rampant globalization and a highly wired world.
In 2019, the Department of Homeland Security developed a strategic framework for countering terrorism and targeted violence (Lundberg & Willis, 2015). DHS utilized a multi-tiered approach in redefining aviation security and border security. This has been made possible through information-sharing efforts between the Federal government and state, local, tribal, territorial, and private sectors.
As a result, DHS has successfully safeguarded American interests, infrastructure and empower American communities. The Strategic Framework stipulates new methods and approaches to understanding terrorism in and out of Federal Government jurisdiction. Counter-terrorism programs and efforts encompass strategic changes that allow the DHS to address domestic and international threats. The strategy acknowledges the essence of technological advances in preventing violent ideologies that pose dire security outcomes for the US and countries worldwide.
The Department of Homeland Security is responsible for securing Americans’ privacy, civil rights, and civil liberties. Therefore, this strategy is essential to impart a sense of security among citizens, institutions, and government. Most people in the US cherish their privacy, civil rights, and civil liberties, and any breach is considered a terrorist attack. The department seeks to protect American communities and not to police them.
As such, DHS seeks to understand the terrorism threat environment and support other agencies linked to Homeland Security. It is essential to acknowledge that terrorism in today’s environment is not static and evolves with the changing environmental conditions, including technological advances. DHS makes a thorough analysis of current and emerging threats and share findings with SLTT, Federal, international, and private sector partners.
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Another strategy employed is preventing the entry of terrorists and other hostile actors into the US. Likewise, opportunities for terrorists to exploit trade, immigration, and domestic and international travel systems are prohibited (Carr, 2016). As a result, Homeland Security continues to offer security through robust screening, detection, vetting, and securing travel systems by bolstering the DHS’s security systems governing aviation, surface, and maritime transportation. Furthermore, Homeland Security prevents terrorism and targeted violence by enhancing awareness initiatives and strengthening social resistance towards violent extremism drivers.
It also seeks to thwart the attacker’s online influences, given that many extremist groups utilize the online space to communicate their moves and progress (Carr, 2016). Collaboration is vital to achieving optimal security: this involves working with the Department of Justice and Federal and SLTT partners to build resilience towards suspicious information operations among domestic and international actors.
Lastly, the Department of Homeland Security promotes community preparedness and protects infrastructure from domestic and international threats. DHS established the National Preparedness Goal to inform community preparedness for disasters and emergencies since terrorist threats are unpredictable and can result in devastating outcomes (Lundberg & Willis, 2015). Americans expect that safety and security are provided for them regularly.
Therefore, the DHS addresses such security concerns by identifying soft targets and other places vulnerable to attack and initiating subtle defensive measures such as national cybersecurity, infrastructure security, and bio-detection technologies. Also, the department protects from the use of unmanned systems and other emerging technologies to monitor targets, move narcotics across the border, and transport weaponized payloads.
Roles of emergency management in response to homeland security issues in domestic and international environments
Emergency management contributes significantly to mitigation initiatives by preventing security threats and reducing their impacts (Feldmann-Jensen et al., 2019). Mitigation entails emergency prevention, lowering chances of Homeland Security issue occurrence, and alleviating adverse outcomes of unprecedented risks.
This entails adequate planning of Homeland Security threats. Some of these plans can be lifesaving and embody activities undertaken to avert security issues from occurring. Emergency management activities are based on geographic locations, crimes, working separately from other agencies, and government planning.
Emergency management response teams may initiate rescue operations for domestic and international homeland security threats and address the needs of communities affected. Response processes seek timely assistance and avert extensive damage to property and injuries (Feldmann-Jensen et al., 2019). Other than the Homeland Security Department, responses can be provided by other domestic and international organizations.
Recovery occurs after the occurrence of Homeland Security threats. Such threats can be domestic or international and involve securing extra resources, including financial assistance, to aid recovery processes. Emergency management also supports initiatives that would alleviate the impacts of future disasters.
Appraisal of different ethical issues between international and domestic home security practices
The Patriotic Act was enacted by Congress and implemented by the Department of Homeland Security. After the historical 9/11 attacks, DHS granted its affiliate agencies the authority to surveillance, search, and seize information from citizens (Adams, 2017). The Patriot Act was passed into law, granting the full government access to private lives without permission to obtain warrants from the courts.
After the Act was fully implemented and its positive outcomes realized, Americans now condemn the policy, arguing that it is an ethical implication and a constitutional violation of their amendment rights. According to the US constitution, its fundamental role is to protect American citizens by all means necessary and uphold the highest land laws standards. Therefore, the American government sanctions no support for terrorism-related activities, and the Patriot Act acts upon traitors to their homeland.
Ethical concerns are highlighted in the DHS’s roles and the Patriotic Act. The existence of terrorism dates back to many decades in the past (Nowrasteh, 2016). Therefore, it is crucial to understand how terrorism causes ethical implications and how the Patriotic Act ethical implications infringe people’s constitutional rights to privacy.
The ethical realities of using technology have begun to question whether it strongly violates American Citizens’ rights. Other aspects can be civil liability for specific unauthorized Intel collected by the US government. The use of surveillance is not as straightforward as it should be but has proven successful in finding that some Islamic charity organizations have for years funded extremist groups.
Some ethical concerns include ordinary law enforcement, illegal immigrants, emergency preparedness. According to the US Department of Health and Human Facilities, hospitals should lead emergency preparedness initiatives through adequate power supply for safety systems, response to emergencies, and safe temperatures for patients (Adams, 2017).
Therefore, the department justifies the need for bumper investments that encompass disaster risk reduction and mitigation measures to avert unprecedented risks. On the other hand, the National Emergency of Management Authority oversees the establishment and implementation of preparedness strategies, report drafting, proposes legislation, and advocates for research and development in civil defense.
The Department of Homeland Security is responsible for providing security against domestic and international threats. Common threats include terrorism, cybercrime, and violence. The DHS utilizes different strategies to address threat-related concerns within and out of the US. One strategy involved developing new methods and approaches to understanding terrorism. It also secures the privacy, civil rights, and civil liberties of American citizens.
The DHS seeks to understand a threat environment as well as support its affiliate partners. Consequently, emergency management in Homeland Security issues facilitates the following processes: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Significant ethical concerns in domestic and international practices are founded around ordinary law enforcement issues, illegal immigrants, and emergency preparedness.
Adams, H. K. (2017). Sovereignty, safety, and security: Tribal governments under the Stafford and homeland security acts. American Indian Law Journal, 1(1), 5.
Bergen, P., Sterman, D., & Salyk-Virk, M. (2019). Terrorism in America 18 Years After 9/11. New America.
Carr, M. (2016). Public-private partnerships in national cyber-security strategies. International Affairs, 92(1), 43-62.
Feldmann-Jensen, S., Hackerott, C., Knox, C. C., Ramsay, J., McEntire, D. A., & Jerolleman, A. (2019). The scholarship of teaching and learning in emergency management and homeland security: Trends, gaps, barriers, and opportunities. Journal of Emergency Management, 17(1), 27-34.
Givens, A. D., Busch, N. E., & Bersin, A. D. (2018). Going global: The international dimensions of US homeland security policy. Journal of Strategic Security, 11(3), 1-34.
Lundberg, R., & Willis, H. (2015). Assessing homeland security risks: A comparative risk assessment of 10 hazards. Homeland security affairs, 11(10).
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