The issue of health promotion gives an overview of how health can be promoted in UK on the areas of development, gestation and maturity in promoting of public health. In a reflective definition, public health is an everyone’s responsibility and how he contributes to the local authority, families, social care, education voluntary sectors, police and prisons. Depending on the individual’s background and expertise, the module enables one to develop knowledge, understanding and skills of communication in order to deliver quality public health in UK. In addition, the concept enables one to investigate health projects and create communication skills and a critical reflection of the community participation in order to provide an ethically evidence-based practice. However, the epidemiology of health practice and promotion has remained uncertain and unsatisfactorily concluded in UK today. Variants of discussion of the concept of practice and approaches in health promotion has created conflicting debates as to whether health promotion should be changed into population health or wellness (Goodson, 2010).
Despite the conflicting debates, the key notions in establishing health promotion are now based on effectiveness, evidence, participatory and best practice. For instance, the notion of evidence has three critical and unresolved issues in health promotion research and practice. Arguably, the rules of evidence are attached to the discipline and not the different types of projects that build the health promotion practice. For example, scientific disciplines such as biology and epidemiology have formed standards that define the causation of an effect through observation and experiment. As a result, the most suitable scientific approach uses both the historical development and observable traits within a particular discipline. The purpose is to establish a long-term systematic and carefully planned health promotion interventions (Goodson, 2010).
The second notion of evidence proposes that there is no consensus on the hierarchy of evidence. Within a health promotion research, there has been no conclusive evaluation as to what constitutes evidence and knowledge among researchers and practitioners. Therefore, there is a need to considers merits and demerits of the types of evidences produced in order to provide accountable and reliable health promotion programmes to the community (Goodson, 2010).
Thirdly, there is a growing concern that the intricate multi-disciplinary and compound interventions result to simple and unsustainable rules of evidence. Many community-based health promotion programmes include a mixture of disciplines that are complex, and are dynamic in changing settings. As a result, news analyses reveal that the approaches used fail to identify the complexities that pertain to different communities. There is a need to consider the complexity issue of the communities and how it connects to the evidence in order to unravel any causal relationships (Goodson, 2010).
A Proactive Approach
Currently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted the most vital role in health promotion and public health is the recognition of the complex characteristics of diverse groups in UK. For instance, the contemporary health problems, the changing demographic profile, groups lifestyles and inequalities in health, are some of the challenges facing nurses and the health professionals. As such, the government of UK and the National Health Service (NHS) recommend the Medical Approach (MA) to be a more proactive an unique position for promoting the public health agenda. Since 1980, the provision of primary care has been a central role of the NHS, and the medical approach has been defined as the building blocks of public health. A report by the WHO confirms that there is a special relationship between the medical approach and the primary care. The relationship is defined in the provision of medical care and the promotion of the health and the well-being of its patients. In particular, the medical approach is the most-accessed form of the healthcare system in England. For instance, the MA patients frequently maintained contacts with the NHS, according to a survey that was done by the institution in 2008/9. In addition, there were over 300 million consultations taking place during that year. The MA was the most appropriate and often regarded as key agents on improving the public health (Talbot & Verrinde, 2010).
Nonetheless, there are other approaches in health promotion commonly used in health care profession. They include the medical approach, the behavioral-change approach, the educational approach, the client-direct approach and the social change approach. The five approaches give a practical view of health promotion in the society rather than the theoretic perspective. Therefore, they are helpful to the nurses when deciding the position that uniquely addresses both the health promotion and the ill-health prevention in England. As discussed below each of the approaches is suitable for a given setting within the context of the community health care.