improve my answer for this specific question and make it as discussion way and write response

What was spurring innovation in Egypt, Greece, and Rome? Provide specific evidence from these civilizations? Do you think the same factor or factors are spurring innovation today?

  1. Reading comprehension (40%) Demonstrates an accurate and sophisticated understanding of the reading material.
  2. Evidence and Cogent Argument (40%) you support your answer with the most relevant evidence from the assigned readings and/or documentaries. And you must cite your evidence (author’s last name and page number, or title of documentary) even when it’s not a quote. You have to tell your readers where you got the information!
  3. Writing (20%)

  • Clear and comprehensible.
  • Grammatical and spelling mistakes should be minimal.
  • Material from the textbook is quoted and properly cited.

my answer for this question–(improve this and use reading material to support evidence)

Egypt, Greece, and Rome were some of the pioneering civilizations in the ancient days. Their breakthroughs in architecture, agriculture, and engineering propelled these bureaucratic states and empires into heights that were unmatched in those times. These breakthroughs, however, could never have been possible without the great minds that aided innovations. This account, therefore, discusses the factors that spurred the changes that built these three civilizations of antiquity.

Egypt was one of the earliest civilizations appearing within a Neolithic society around 6000 years ago (McClellan, James & Dorn). They made inventions that boosted their agricultural practices and architecture. The primary factor spurring innovations was competition between pharaohs. Every pharaoh wanted to be better than their predecessor. They would, therefore, strive to build better structures and majorly the pyramids that would act as their tombs with an aim of demonstrating their superiority. The competition led to the construction of some of the most massive pyramids of Giza and Khufu (Friedel). The dams constructed around 2600BC were also another spurring effect (Landels). Initially, dams were erected to protect the cities however with time Egyptians saw a means of transport and developed the art of irrigation.

Greece, on the other hand, had a culture of great minds. The Greeks had a mindset of searching for natural explanations for natural occurrences instead of dwelling upon the supernatural (Landels). As a result solutions and inventions were formed from people’s ideas. Thanks to the geniuses of Eupalinos, Aristotle, Plato, Pythagoras, Leucippus and Democritus and many others (McClellan, James & Dorn). From these minds, the Greeks marveled at motor mechanisms, geometry, cosmology and many others (Friedel). The domino effect amongst these geniuses led to many inventions and solutions that have stretched to be used even up to the 17th century and others like the science of atoms are used up to date.

The Romans managed to build a vast empire that covered a significant portion of Eurasia. The empire was fond of entertainment, conquest and luxurious living (Friedel). These three factors inspired inventions like the construction of the Colosseum in which gladiator games were held, the Roman catapult, a weapon of war that revolutionized their campaign in the war field and finally the aqueduct that helped channel water to people’s homes. Introduction of water into the homes of the elite made bathing luxurious, and the sewage system was also invented in the course (McClellan, James & Dorn).

These same factors have led to many inventions of today. Let’s take a look back at the kinds of Benjamin Franklin who invented electricity. Other great minds added to his work; Nikola Tesla designed the alternating current whereas the types of Joseph Swan, Hiram Maxim, and Thomas Edison invented the incandescent bulb. This was the same domino factor that operated in Greece. Today war and strife for a comfortable life have also spurred a lot of inventions. Let us take for example the development of weapons around the times of the world war. Another example is the desire to travel fast and communicate over long distances which inspired the motor engine and air transport and telecommunication respectively. Today many companies compete trying to manufacture the most elite products in all sectors of life; telecommunication, transportation and many others.

In conclusion, curiosity is said to be the mother of invention, and the human mind is known to be an endless puzzle of need. Therefore, as long as man survives in the planet, they will always seek to develop and invent new means of doing things. Thus, the invention shall still be dominant in all spheres of life.

Work Cited

McClellan III, James E., and Harold Dorn. Science and technology in world history: an introduction. JHU Press, 2015.

Friedel, Robert Douglas. A culture of improvement: Technology and the Western millennium. The MIT Press, 2007.

Landels, John Gray. Engineering in the Ancient World, Revised Edition: With a Revised Preface, a New Appendix, and a New Bibliography. Univ of California Press, 2000.

My friend answer: I need you to make good response to him

Pride to me played a huge role in spurring innovation in each of the civilizations from Egypt to Greece to Rome. Each place had their fair share of rulers who had come and gone, each one wanted to put their stamp, their mark on the growth, expansions, and innovative developments of their respected areas. For example, in Egypt, Pharaoh Djoser built the first tomb in the shape of a pyramid, when he died the next ruler Sneferu decided to build 3 pyramids, therefore building bigger, better and more pyramids during his time as ruler compared to Djoser taking pride in leaving a good mark to his name and time as ruler. In Greece they built the Parthenon in Athena out of marble and no straight lines or right angles, they wanted to spread their lifestyle and religion throughout the region so each ruler helped spread their empire throughout by building agoras, and markets in all of the areas they conquered to try and spread their identity around. In Rome Nero built many monuments and buildings, one being the 150 ft statue of Helios. When he passed Flavian took over and decided he needed to build something bigger, better to top the Helios so he built the Colosseum which is what he used as his so called claim to fame after Nero before him. All of these examples I feel can be linked to Pride and wanting to out-do, out build, out engineer their respective predecessors and leave their own lasting marks on their respected civilizations before passing on.

Examples of discussion : (forum # 4, Note that these were written using a different book)

Example # 1:

It is my belief that technology is neither good or bad, if using the definition Headrick provides us with. Headrick defines technology as the tools and skills used to be able to control nature. Within this definition, I believe technology cannot be seen as inherently good or bad. Technology just is. As is science. It would be akin, in my opinion, to asking whether math is inherently good or bad. Why can’t it be neither? Almost all forms of life find one way or another to control nature. This then brings up a deeper philosophical question whether existence, in itself, is good or not – but I will try avoiding such nihilistic chasms. With this being said, however, there is a question as to whether technology, especially since the European Renaissance, has left an overall impact on the world that is for the better or for the worse. Even this question is a difficult one to answer – some argue technology has caused more harm than good, while others assert that it has helped the world in more ways than hurt. I have to agree with the latter, in that technology and science have helped the world far more than it has hurt. From the very earliest days of humankind, humans were able to devise ways to produce more food in order to reach the status of having a food surplus. By doing this, it finally allowed individuals to do other things besides hunting and searching for food all day. This was technology, allowing for humans to do more with their life. It is important to note that if all you wanted to do with your life was indeed hunt, then technology, in this instance, does not prohibit you to – it only gives you more options. It is technology that has made it so parents must not have a dozen children in order to have at least a couple survive past infancy.

There is also the downside, where it was technology that allowed Europeans to massacre indigenous populations in the Americas. But one might then argue back and say that the Aztecs were beheading people in city squares long before the Spanish arrived with their boats, but I do not wish to enter into the “technology doesn’t kill people, people kill people” discussion. Rather I will say that is was technology that also allowed for Native Americans to later adapt and defend themselves against the Europeans, using cavalry and guns against them. Technology can be used for defense. Furthermore, as we learned in the entirety of Headrick’s thesis, it was disease that killed the most Americans, not technology. So perhaps disease is the real problem. But as we have seen, technology, and the skills required to use it, spreads. Technology, if it is very important and thus used a lot, cannot be kept secret. Whether this is Americans using horses or Abyssinians using firearms. But it is not just weapons, but medicine, transportation, and knowledge of all kinds. This, I believe, is even more the case today with the internet. The internet, in itself, is proof to me that technology is a blessing rather than a curse. With all of humankind’s knowledge and the ability to share it, let alone communicate with others, the internet has opened the world up to much more possibilities. And with it, technology will spread even faster, making the world more interdependent and cooperative than it ever has before. As Headrick concluded, technology alone cannot solve humankind’s problems, but rest assured, it has done more good than harm, and it will continue to widen that gap in the future. (student, spring 2015)

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