Wk 2 Mod #1 Assignment-case study

Wk 2 Mod #1 Assignment-case study: Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis in which you: Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described…

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Wk 2 Mod #1 Assignment-case study

Paper details

Please see scenario in additional materials box. 

Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis in which you: 

  • Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.
  • Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.
  • Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.

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Solution

Wk 2 Mod #1 Assignment-case study

Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.

From the given scenario, it is most likely that the patient is suffering from type III hypersensitivity. According to Dispenza (2019), hypersensitivity is an inappropriate immune reaction to an antigen that results in undesirable outcomes. In this case, type III hypersensitivity results from forming immune complexes on different tissues, including joints, glomeruli, skin, or vessels, and can trigger the complement pathway.

From the case provided, the patient reports having pain, redness, and swelling on his right calf. He also added that he was cut by a trimmer while attending to his yard. While he tried to clean the wound with water from the garden, he likely got an infection on the wound. The reaction increased fever levels and chills within a week, and his foot was swollen.

Type III hypersensitivity involves a complement activation which leads to the inflammation of neutrophils and monocytes, releasing lysosomal enzymes and free radicals on the specified site that can cause tissue damage (Arnold et al., 2019). Unlike other types of hypersensitivity, type III hypersensitivity involves the preformation of antigen-antibody complexes in the circulation before they are deposited in the tissues.

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Dispenza (2019) also highlights that once a person is exposed to an antigen, the body responds by creating antibodies between four and ten days. In this case, the antibodies react with the antigen to form complex immunes that circulate and move into the vascular tissues where fixation and complement are activated. As a result, an influx of leukocytes is produced at the site causing tissue damage. This reaction was the reason behind the fever, chills, and swollen feet presented by the patient.

Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease

Matsumoto et al. (2018) highlight that several genes are associated with developing type III hypersensitivity. Specifically, the genes include ALB, BTK, C3, C4A, DCX, and TNF. First, the ALB gene encodes the most common protein in the human body. It also plays an essential role in regulating blood plasma and acts as a carrier for hormones, exogenous drugs, fatty acids, and metabolites (Albrektsson et al., 2018).

Second, the BTK gene is located in the X chromosome and plays an essential role in signaling oncogenic, which is critical for the survival of leukemic cells in most B-cells. Third, the C3 gene provides instructions in making complement component 3, which is necessary to enhance the body’s immune response.

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Fourth, the C4A gene is responsible for proportioning and stabilizing C4 and its thioester bond until the lectin pathways are activated. Fifth, the DCX gene plays a crucial role in instructing the production of doublecortin, which moves nerve cells to their appropriate location during brain development. Lastly, the TNF gene is a proinflammatory cytokine crucial in disease pathogenesis (Albrektsson et al., 2018). The failure or lack of these genes in the body may lead to type III hypersensitivity.

Please explain the process of immunosuppression and its effect on body systems.

Ideally, immunosuppression refers to the body’s inability to fight diseases and infections. While some parts of the immune system have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, it may be voluntarily induced using pharmaceutical agents to fight conditions such as cancer (McCance et al., 2018). Deliberate immunosuppression may be done through splenectomy, radiation, or plasmapheresis.

Additionally, one can use drugs such as anti-thymocyte globulin or cyclosporine to treat aplastic anemia and reduce the chances of an organ transplant. However, immunosuppression may lead to viral, fungal, or bacterial infections because the body’s ability to fight infections is diminished. Moreover, one can experience chills, fever, pain, fatigue, and weakness.

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References

  • Albrektsson, T., Chrcanovic, B., Mölne, J., & Wennerberg, A. (2018). Foreign body reactions, marginal bone loss and allergies in relation to titanium implants. European journal of oral implantology, 11.
  • Arnold, K. A., Gao, J., & Stein, S. L. (2019). A review of cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions in infants: From common to concerning. Pediatric Dermatology, 36(3), 274-282. https://doi.org/10.1111/pde.13827
  • Dispenza, M. C. (2019). Classification of hypersensitivity reactions. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, 40(6), 470-473. https://doi.org/10.2500/aap.2019.40.4274
  • Matsumoto, T., Horino, T., Inotani, S., Ichii, O., & Terada, Y. (2018). Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms/drug‐induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DRESS/DIHS) caused by levofloxacin in a patient with systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjogren syndrome. Contact Dermatitis, 80(4), 253-254. https://doi.org/10.1111/cod.13188
  • McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., & Rote, N. S. (2018). Pathophysiology: The biological basis for disease in adults and children. Mosby.

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Wk 2 Mod #1 Assignment-case study